Med102, Analogue Coding



  1. Draw a 15cm x 15cm square on an a4 piece of paper.
  2. Using a compass draw 20 circles with diameters between 10 and 25mm in random locations within the square. Circles may overlap
  3. Shade the circles in carefully with a black sharpie
  4. Roughly rip the square out so its borders become approximately between 10-13 cm on each side.
  5. Rotate so it is in a diamond shape and stick centrally on an A3 piece of paper.





My analogue coding piece is an instructional artwork inspired primarily by Agnes Martin’s 1963 piece ‘The Moment (Egg)’ and Sol LeWitt’s 1998 piece ‘Wall Drawing #328’. Martin’s ‘The Moment (Egg)’, which draws its aesthetic value from the borderless ‘egg’ shape created by a series of imperfect lines. These imperfect lines immediately invite the eye to inspect the finer detail in the lines making up the ‘egg’ shape (A. Martin, 1963). Sol LeWitt’s ‘Wall Drawing #328’ (S. LeWitt, 1980) uses shapes within a shape to create a striking image through the contrasting lines; the parallelogram inside the circle and the circle inside the square frame.



To create my pragmatic art piece, I used the visually engaging structure of a shape within a shape combined with a large blank background to draw the viewer into the image. I conceptualised my piece titled ‘tear’ as a group of black circles contained within a ‘tear’ in the paper on a sparse white background. This ‘tear’ would give a notion of depth to the image through its window like appearance.

Initially, I conceptualised the tear to be rougher than that of the attempts undertaken, almost gouge-like to contrast the circles enclosed within. A concept which proved difficult to convey through text as the word ‘roughly’ can be quite subjective. Two of the attempts resulted in a quite cleanly torn square that didn’t quite replicate the image I had conceived. The third image by Haylee was closer to what I had intended on. This was my main issue with the pieces.

Upon discussing the instructions with the participants on completion of their pieces, the common issue brought up was the confusion they encountered with the 3rd step, ‘Shade the circles in carefully with a black sharpie’. The participants all found that the instruction was not explicit enough in whether to shade in the circles in differing tones or as a single tone of black. Luckily the sharpie had limited flexibility in its tones and resulted in the participants all finishing with a single shade of black.

The form of the image may be changed by incorporating a black A3 background to further the contrast of the tear, however, may also detract from the impact of the tear on the flat white background. The sharpie worked well; however, the participant’s confusion of shading the circles’ different tones highlighted an excellent point. Using lead pencils to achieve different tones would further the feeling of the ‘window’ within the frame adding extra depth to the image.

Overall I believe the simplicity of instruction and limited wording worked well and resulted in images that were surprisingly extremely similar to that of which I had originally conceived. The main take away I gained was increasing the specificity of instruction when needed to cover shades or physical actions carried out such as the tearing of paper to fully convey my intentions to the participant.





Artsy, Agnes Martin the Egg, Viewed 22 August 2017 <;


RISD Museum, Variations of a drawing, Sol Lewitt and his written instructions, Viewed 22 August 2017 <;


Med101, moving image project

My moving image project was created using George Ella Lyon’s poem ‘Where I’m from’ (G. Lyon, 1999), as an inspiration to base my project on. The project uses cool tones and minimalistic settings along with a variety of both harsh and sterile landscapes to project a feeling of an almost dystopian like environment.

Todd Hido, a US landscape photographer that often focuses on human infrastructure in unsettling environments, provided inspiration for the harsh and sterile setting of the video. I often used Hido’s work as a starting point to visualise and storyboard each scene.
My cinematography stemmed from two filmmakers that regular use environments to further their films narrative.  I emulated Stanley Kubrick’s use of hallways and interior space in films such as A Clockwork Orange (S. Kubrick, 1971), was used to focus the viewer’s attention directly on the subject and further draw the viewer into the environment at which the film is set. Jonathan Glazer’s film Under the Skin’s (J. Glazer, 2013) use of simple sounds and scenes was also used to gain a realistic sense of time and place.

The project aims to keep the viewer visually and intellectually engaged throughout to develop their basis of the projects representations and meaning.


Hido, T, Landscapes. Viewed 30 May 2017.

Kubrick, S. Viewed 29 May 2017

Under The Skin. (2013). (film) Directed by J. Glazer.

Where I’m From

My sound project was created using George Ella Lyon’s poem ‘Where I’m from’ (Lyon 1999), as an inspiration to base my sound piece on. The sound piece uses a selection of overlapping everyday sounds that occurred in my apartment. I aimed to convey a sense of time ticking away with a tenebrous background track embodying the general pressures and stress accompanying life.

Jacob Kirkegaard’s 4 Rooms (Jacob Kirkegaard, 2006) was one of my main influences on the sound project, focusing my attention on sounds for my project only found in my apartment . 4 Rooms used recordings in 4 different rooms that were once meeting places in the now abandoned Chernobyl nuclear area. Recording, playing back into the room and re-recording up to 10 times before the sound becomes a steady hum in the background.

I gained inspiration to convey meaning through Else Marie Pade’s early electronic compositions. Else Marie Pade’s aim and ability to ‘use the right sound to express emotions in the most truthful way’ (Else Marie Pade, 2014) pushed me to looked towards using sound to generate certain emotions and reactions from the sound pieces used.

Recourses JACOB KIRKEGAARD. ,Viewed: 25 Apr. 2017.

Nordic Playlist. Magma – Else Marie Pade. ,Viewed 24 Apr. 2017.

Diversity in the digital age

How the digital media age is changing; who controls own news and where it is coming from?

(Featured Image: AP/Josh Reynolds)

How does media ownership concentration affect the way we get our news? Will new online landscapes end up facing these same ownership issues? As we move into the new digital age, a new media landscape is developing; creating opportunities and potential for diversity in the Australian media industry. This is due to a decreasing concentration of media ownership and an increase in differing media platforms.

Government-owned media such as the ABC aim to provide journalism grounded in objectivity. In contrast, privately owned media corporations such as Fairfax and News Corp generally feature opinion based articles, often propagating bias towards the key stakeholder’s views.

‘Brexit’ coverage, BBC vs. the Daily Mail.

However,  journalism that is targeted towards pleasing stakeholders becomes particularly problematic when the same agenda is pushed across multiple platforms of mainstream publications. For example, in Australia News Corp and Fairfax dominate the ownership of media publications. The problem with this is that this doesn’t leave much room for coverage from a differing perspective.

‘Reach over 7 million Australians every day’ 

News Corp’s online home page

The Future of print, radio and televised networks is uncertain due to the rise of social media. Recent studies suggest that ‘more than 90% of consumers access the internet at least once a day and 61% use a smartphone or tablet to access online news’ (Fisher C. and Watkins J. 2016). Furthermore, ‘over half of Australians (52%) reported using online and social media as a source of news’ (Fisher C. and Watkins J. 2016)

Daily Mail Australia and the Guardian Australia, two UK owned entities are two examples of the market stepping up their online campaigns in recent years. The Guardian Australia increased its unique audience from 888 000 in 2012 to 2 685 000 in 2017 (Nielsen Digital Ratings, 2017). This increase of over 200% has led them to overtake media competitors such as The Australian and Yahoo news, who have failed to fully capitalise on social media and online trends. The Guardian and Daily Mail aren’t the only media outlets to successfully infiltrate Australia’s shores; online-centric outlets such as Vice, Buzz Feed and The Huffington Post have invested heavily into the new online industry.


(Nielsen Digital Ratings 2017)

Although new players in the Australian media market have generated large followings in recent time, Fairfax Media and News Corp continue to hold significant proportions of the online media market. Their two biggest online news outlets, (News Corp) and (Fairfax) have almost 10 Million unique viewers between them (Nielsen Digital Ratings 2017).

Therefore, although the Australian media heavyweights will undoubtingly look towards expanding their online audiences over the coming years. The nature of the online world and the success of smaller media competitors in recent years suggests Australians will have access to a vibrant and diverse range of media, unlike anything we have ever had access to before. Whether or not this unregulated media machine will provide accurate and unbiased information is another question altogether.




APO, (2016). Viewed 30 Mar. 2017 <>

APH (2016). Broadcasting Legislation Amendment (Media Reform) Bill 2016 – Parliament of Australia. Viewed 30 Mar. 2017 <>

 Fisher, C. and Watkins, J. (2016). Australia. Digital News Report. Viewed 30 Mar. 2017 <>

The 21st Century Public Sphere

Where is the 21st-century coffee shop discourse occurring?

In the 20th century, German Intellectual Jürgen Habermas likened the public sphere to a European Coffee House, a place where the bourgeoisie and working classes could gather to engage in discourse about the current social issues and needs of society (Habermas 1962)

Featured Image: (Papaspyropoulos, S. 2013)

Jürgen Habermas describes the functioning Public Sphere as a group “made up of private people gathered together as a public and articulating the needs of society with the state”

(Habermas 1962)

So what is our public sphere in the 21st century? It is a meeting place unmediated, that allows us access whenever we desire and able to be accessed by the majority of the population. This public sphere has come through the medium of social media. Facebook, Twitter, Reddit and many other outlets allowing the public to voice their own personal opinions on the issues of the day.

The benefits of this all-inclusive conversation are that it allows a broad range of ideas from all genders, races and religions around the world allowing the users to publish their own journalism, advocacy pieces and opinion articles highlighting their own individual voices and ideas.

For this all-inclusive conversation to function correctly, censorship of the media or the internet must not be enforced on the citizens by the State. Reporters Without Borders latest 2016 World Press Freedom Index (RSF 2016), highlights the concerning number of countries still experiencing press censorship by the State.


Image: (RSF 2016)

Australia ranked 25th in the world with Turkmenistan, North Korea and Eritrea facing the highest levels of press censorship.

(RSF 2016)

Even with these restrictions imposed, the power of the new age social sphere has been demonstrated recently with dramatic effect. In 2011, the Arab Spring gave birth to a new era of questioning once feared regimes with advocates for change and reform heading to social media to voice their opinions on the State. Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Syria, Algeria and many other prominent Arab States were swept up in the dramatic protests with social media the outlet of choice for documenting the events to the world while they unfolded.
Use this link to gain an insight of what popular websites (such as Facebook) are banned in China today.  (, 2017)

While it is contended how much of an effect social media had on causing the uprisings and protests due to the majority of the countries population not being connected to the internet. Using Egypt as an example, research showed that ‘84% of those who are online say they visit social networking sites for news about Egypt’s political situation’ (Pew Research Center’s Global Attitudes Project, 2012).

Without social media, the voices of the Citizen during the Arab Spring would have been limited to State Censored Journalists and the State itself.


Image: (Getty Images, 2017)

With the It’s clear that this new medium of communication is one that will continue to develop over the years and hopefully become a more inclusive outlet capable of allowing controversial and important topics to be discussed around the world without fear of persecution.



Bibliography (2017). Test if any website is Blocked in China in real-time .Viewed 30 Mar. 2017.<;

Brown, H., Guskin, E. and Mitchell, A. (2017). The Role of Social Media in the Arab Uprisings. Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project. Viewed 30 Mar. 2017.<;

Getty Images, (2011).Viewed 30 Mar. 2017. <;

Habermas, J. (1962). The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. 1st ed. Hoboken: Wiley.

Papaspyropoulos, S. (2013).Viewed 30 Mar. 2017.<;

Pew Research Center’s Global Attitudes Project. (2017). Chapter 1. Views of Political Change.Viewed 30 Mar. 2017.<;

RSF. (2017). 2016 World Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders.Viewed 30 Mar. 2017.<;




Blue Escapes and Grey Realities

My ‘remoscope’ project centred on my interpretation of George Ella Lyon’s poem ‘Where I’m from’ (Lyon 1999). My narrative developed my escapes from the monotony of life in suburbia to the coast, where I felt a true sense of belonging.

The inspiration for the scenes of day to day life and compositions came from Seamus Murphy in his video work for Eliza Griswold on ‘Snake’ (Griswold 2013). The poems of ‘Snake’ were a collection of poetry from the women of Afghanistan, the visual scenes focusing heavily on the moments of daily life of the poems authors.

Adele Myers ‘Racing Time‘ (Myers 2012) influenced the mix of shots conveying either a representative or interpretive message to the viewer to gain a more individual and insightful interpretation of the events depicted.


Griswold E, Snake, viewed  27th Mar 2016 <>
Lyon G. E, Where I’m from,  viewed  27th Mar 2016 <>
Myers A & Page R, Racing Time, viewed  28th Mar 2016  <>
Seamus Murphey, Snake, viewed  27th Mar 2016<>